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lib: improve fletcher checksum validation

OVERVIEW

The checksum used in OSPF (rfc2328) is specified in rc905 annex B.  There is an
sample implementation in rfc1008 which forms the basis of the quagga
implementation.  This algorithm works perfectly when generating a checksum;
however, validation is a bit problematic.

The following LSA (generated by a non-quagga implementation) is received by
quagga and marked with an invalid checksum; however, it passes both the rfc905
and rfc1008 validation checks.

static uint8_t lsa_10_121_233_29[] = {
   0x0e, 0x10, 0x02, 0x03,
   0x09, 0x00, 0x35, 0x40,
   0x0a, 0x79, 0xe9, 0x1d,
   0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03,
   0x00, 0x8a, 0x00, 0x1c,
   0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0,
   0x00, 0x00, 0x36, 0xb0
};

LS Type: Summary-LSA (IP network)
   LS Age: 3600 seconds
   Do Not Age: False
   Options: 0x02 (E)
   Link-State Advertisement Type: Summary-LSA (IP network) (3)
   Link State ID: 9.0.53.64
   Advertising Router: 10.121.233.29 (10.121.233.29)
   LS Sequence Number: 0x80000003
   LS Checksum: 0x008a
   Length: 28
   Netmask: 255.255.255.224
   Metric: 14000

You'll note that one byte of the checksum is 0x00; quagga would calculate the
checksum as 0xff8a.

It can be argued that the sourcing implementation generates an incorrect
checksum; however, rfc905 indicates that, for 1's complement arithmetic, the
value 255 shall be regarded as 0, thus either values are valid.

EXPLANATION

The quagga ospfd and ospf6d implementations operate by copying the PDU's
existing checksum in a holding variable, calculating the checksum, and comparing
the resulting checksum to the original.  As a note, this implementation has the
side effect of modifying the contents of the PDU.

Evaluation of both rfc905 and rfc1008 shows that checksum validation should
involve calculating the sum over the PDU and checking that both resulting C0 and
C1 values are zero.  This behavior is enacted in the rfc1008 implementation by
calling encodecc with k = 0 (checksum offset); however, this functionality had
been omitted from the quagga implementation.

PATCH

This patch adds the ability to call the quagga's fletcher_checksum() with a
checksum offset value of 0xffff (aka FLETCHER_CHECKSUM_VALIDATE) which returns
the sum over the buffer (a value of 0 indicates a valid checksum).  This is
similar to the mechanism in rfc1008 when called with k = 0.  The patch also
introduces ospf_lsa_checksum_valid().

ospf6d had it's own implementation of the fletcher checksum in
ospf6_lsa_checksum(); it's the same algorithm as in fletcher_checksum().  This
patch removes the local implementation in favor of the library's as well as creates
and uses ospf6_lsa_checksum_valid().

quagga's ISIS implementation suffers from the same problem; however, I do not
have the facilities to validate a fix to ISIS, thus this change has been left to
the ISIS maintainers.  The function iso_csum_verify() should be reduced to
running the fletcher checksum over the buffer using an offset of 0.

Signed-off-by: JR Rivers <jrrivers@cumulusnetworks.com>
Reviewed-by: Scott Feldman <sfeldma@cumulusnetworks.com>
Reviewed-by: Nolan Leake <nolan@cumulusnetworks.com>
Reviewed-by: Ayan Banerjee <ayan@cumulusnetworks.com>
Reviewed-by: Shrijeet Mukherjee <shm@cumulusnetworks.com>
Signed-off-by: David Lamparter <equinox@opensourcerouting.org>
JR Rivers 7 years ago
parent
commit
d8a4e42b7d
7 changed files with 66 additions and 54 deletions
  1. 28 18
      lib/checksum.c
  2. 1 0
      lib/checksum.h
  3. 1 3
      ospf6d/ospf6_flood.c
  4. 22 32
      ospf6d/ospf6_lsa.c
  5. 1 0
      ospf6d/ospf6_lsa.h
  6. 12 0
      ospfd/ospf_lsa.c
  7. 1 1
      ospfd/ospf_packet.c

+ 28 - 18
lib/checksum.c

@@ -51,6 +51,8 @@ in_cksum(void *parg, int nbytes)
 
 /* To be consistent, offset is 0-based index, rather than the 1-based 
    index required in the specification ISO 8473, Annex C.1 */
+/* calling with offset == FLETCHER_CHECKSUM_VALIDATE will validate the checksum
+   without modifying the buffer; a valid checksum returns 0 */
 u_int16_t
 fletcher_checksum(u_char * buffer, const size_t len, const uint16_t offset)
 {
@@ -62,13 +64,14 @@ fletcher_checksum(u_char * buffer, const size_t len, const uint16_t offset)
   
   checksum = 0;
 
-  assert (offset < len);
 
-  /*
-   * Zero the csum in the packet.
-   */
-  csum = (u_int16_t *) (buffer + offset);
-  *(csum) = 0;
+  if (offset != FLETCHER_CHECKSUM_VALIDATE)
+    /* Zero the csum in the packet. */
+    {
+      assert (offset < (len - 1)); /* account for two bytes of checksum */
+      csum = (u_int16_t *) (buffer + offset);
+      *(csum) = 0;
+    }
 
   p = buffer;
   c0 = 0;
@@ -89,7 +92,7 @@ fletcher_checksum(u_char * buffer, const size_t len, const uint16_t offset)
 
       left -= partial_len;
     }
-  
+
   /* The cast is important, to ensure the mod is taken as a signed value. */
   x = (int)((len - offset - 1) * c0 - c1) % 255;
 
@@ -98,17 +101,24 @@ fletcher_checksum(u_char * buffer, const size_t len, const uint16_t offset)
   y = 510 - c0 - x;
   if (y > 255)  
     y -= 255;
-  
-  /*
-   * Now we write this to the packet.
-   * We could skip this step too, since the checksum returned would
-   * be stored into the checksum field by the caller.
-   */
-  buffer[offset] = x;
-  buffer[offset + 1] = y;
-
-  /* Take care of the endian issue */
-  checksum = htons((x << 8) | (y & 0xFF));
+
+  if (offset == FLETCHER_CHECKSUM_VALIDATE)
+    {
+      checksum = (c1 << 8) + c0;
+    }
+  else
+    {
+      /*
+       * Now we write this to the packet.
+       * We could skip this step too, since the checksum returned would
+       * be stored into the checksum field by the caller.
+       */
+      buffer[offset] = x;
+      buffer[offset + 1] = y;
+
+      /* Take care of the endian issue */
+      checksum = htons((x << 8) | (y & 0xFF));
+    }
 
   return checksum;
 }

+ 1 - 0
lib/checksum.h

@@ -1,2 +1,3 @@
 extern int in_cksum(void *, int);
+#define FLETCHER_CHECKSUM_VALIDATE 0xffff
 extern u_int16_t fletcher_checksum(u_char *, const size_t len, const uint16_t offset);

+ 1 - 3
ospf6d/ospf6_flood.c

@@ -733,7 +733,6 @@ ospf6_receive_lsa (struct ospf6_neighbor *from,
 {
   struct ospf6_lsa *new = NULL, *old = NULL, *rem = NULL;
   int ismore_recent;
-  unsigned short cksum;
   int is_debug = 0;
 
   ismore_recent = 1;
@@ -751,8 +750,7 @@ ospf6_receive_lsa (struct ospf6_neighbor *from,
     }
 
   /* (1) LSA Checksum */
-  cksum = ntohs (new->header->checksum);
-  if (ntohs (ospf6_lsa_checksum (new->header)) != cksum)
+  if (! ospf6_lsa_checksum_valid (new->header))
     {
       if (is_debug)
         zlog_debug ("Wrong LSA Checksum, discard");

+ 22 - 32
ospf6d/ospf6_lsa.c

@@ -29,6 +29,7 @@
 #include "command.h"
 #include "memory.h"
 #include "thread.h"
+#include "checksum.h"
 
 #include "ospf6_proto.h"
 #include "ospf6_lsa.h"
@@ -672,47 +673,36 @@ ospf6_lsa_refresh (struct thread *thread)
 
 
 
-/* enhanced Fletcher checksum algorithm, RFC1008 7.2 */
-#define MODX                4102
-#define LSA_CHECKSUM_OFFSET   15
+/* Fletcher Checksum -- Refer to RFC1008. */
 
+/* All the offsets are zero-based. The offsets in the RFC1008 are
+   one-based. */
 unsigned short
 ospf6_lsa_checksum (struct ospf6_lsa_header *lsa_header)
 {
-  u_char *sp, *ep, *p, *q;
-  int c0 = 0, c1 = 0;
-  int x, y;
-  u_int16_t length;
+  u_char *buffer = (u_char *) &lsa_header->type;
+  int type_offset = buffer - (u_char *) &lsa_header->age; /* should be 2 */
 
-  lsa_header->checksum = 0;
-  length = ntohs (lsa_header->length) - 2;
-  sp = (u_char *) &lsa_header->type;
+  /* Skip the AGE field */
+  u_int16_t len = ntohs(lsa_header->length) - type_offset;
 
-  for (ep = sp + length; sp < ep; sp = q)
-    {
-      q = sp + MODX;
-      if (q > ep)
-        q = ep;
-      for (p = sp; p < q; p++)
-        {
-          c0 += *p;
-          c1 += c0;
-        }
-      c0 %= 255;
-      c1 %= 255;
-    }
+  /* Checksum offset starts from "type" field, not the beginning of the
+     lsa_header struct. The offset is 14, rather than 16. */
+  int checksum_offset = (u_char *) &lsa_header->checksum - buffer;
+
+  return (unsigned short)fletcher_checksum(buffer, len, checksum_offset);
+}
 
-  /* r = (c1 << 8) + c0; */
-  x = ((length - LSA_CHECKSUM_OFFSET) * c0 - c1) % 255;
-  if (x <= 0)
-    x += 255;
-  y = 510 - c0 - x;
-  if (y > 255)
-    y -= 255;
+int
+ospf6_lsa_checksum_valid (struct ospf6_lsa_header *lsa_header)
+{
+  u_char *buffer = (u_char *) &lsa_header->type;
+  int type_offset = buffer - (u_char *) &lsa_header->age; /* should be 2 */
 
-  lsa_header->checksum = htons ((x << 8) + y);
+  /* Skip the AGE field */
+  u_int16_t len = ntohs(lsa_header->length) - type_offset;
 
-  return (lsa_header->checksum);
+  return (fletcher_checksum(buffer, len, FLETCHER_CHECKSUM_VALIDATE) == 0);
 }
 
 void

+ 1 - 0
ospf6d/ospf6_lsa.h

@@ -237,6 +237,7 @@ extern int ospf6_lsa_expire (struct thread *);
 extern int ospf6_lsa_refresh (struct thread *);
 
 extern unsigned short ospf6_lsa_checksum (struct ospf6_lsa_header *);
+extern int ospf6_lsa_checksum_valid (struct ospf6_lsa_header *);
 extern int ospf6_lsa_prohibited_duration (u_int16_t type, u_int32_t id,
                                           u_int32_t adv_router, void *scope);
 

+ 12 - 0
ospfd/ospf_lsa.c

@@ -192,6 +192,18 @@ ospf_lsa_checksum (struct lsa_header *lsa)
   return fletcher_checksum(buffer, len, checksum_offset);
 }
 
+int
+ospf_lsa_checksum_valid (struct lsa_header *lsa)
+{
+  u_char *buffer = (u_char *) &lsa->options;
+  int options_offset = buffer - (u_char *) &lsa->ls_age; /* should be 2 */
+
+  /* Skip the AGE field */
+  u_int16_t len = ntohs(lsa->length) - options_offset;
+
+  return(fletcher_checksum(buffer, len, FLETCHER_CHECKSUM_VALIDATE) == 0);
+}
+
 
 
 /* Create OSPF LSA. */

+ 1 - 1
ospfd/ospf_packet.c

@@ -1590,7 +1590,7 @@ ospf_ls_upd_list_lsa (struct ospf_neighbor *nbr, struct stream *s,
 
       /* Validate the LSA's LS checksum. */
       sum = lsah->checksum;
-      if (sum != ospf_lsa_checksum (lsah))
+      if (! ospf_lsa_checksum_valid (lsah))
 	{
 	  /* (bug #685) more details in a one-line message make it possible
 	   * to identify problem source on the one hand and to have a better