#### HACKING.tex16 KB History Raw

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Suggestions for updates, via the \href{http://lists.quagga.net/mailman/listinfo/quagga-dev}{quagga-dev list}, are welcome. \tableofcontents \section{GUIDELINES FOR HACKING ON QUAGGA} \label{sec:guidelines} GNU coding standards apply. Indentation follows the result of invoking GNU indent (as of 2.2.8a) with no arguments. Note that this uses tabs instead of spaces where possible for leading whitespace, and assumes that tabs are every 8 columns. Do not attempt to redefine the location of tab stops. Note also that some indentation does not follow GNU style. This is a historical accident, and we generally only clean up whitespace when code is unmaintainable due to whitespace issues, to minimise merging conflicts. For GNU emacs, use indentation style gnu''. For Vim, use the following lines (note that tabs are at 8, and that softtabstop sets the indentation level): set tabstop=8 set softtabstop=2 set shiftwidth=2 set noexpandtab Be particularly careful not to break platforms/protocols that you cannot test. New code should have good comments, which explain why the code is correct. Changes to existing code should in many cases upgrade the comments when necessary for a reviewer to conclude that the change has no unintended consequences. Each file in the Git repository should have a git format-placeholder (like an RCS Id keyword), somewhere very near the top, commented out appropriately for the file type. The placeholder used for Quagga (replacing with \$) is: \verb|$QuaggaId: Format:%an, %ai, %h$| See line 2 of HACKING.tex, the source for this document, for an example. This placeholder string will be expanded out by the git archive' commands, wihch is used to generate the tar archives for snapshots and releases. Please document fully the proper use of a new function in the header file in which it is declared. And please consult existing headers for documentation on how to use existing functions. In particular, please consult these header files: \begin{description} \item{lib/log.h} logging levels and usage guidance \item{[more to be added]} \end{description} If changing an exported interface, please try to deprecate the interface in an orderly manner. If at all possible, try to retain the old deprecated interface as is, or functionally equivalent. Make a note of when the interface was deprecated and guard the deprecated interface definitions in the header file, ie: \begin{verbatim} /* Deprecated: 20050406 */ #if !defined(QUAGGA_NO_DEPRECATED_INTERFACES) #warning "Using deprecated (interface(s)|function(s))" ... #endif /* QUAGGA_NO_DEPRECATED_INTERFACES */ \end{verbatim} This is to ensure that the core Quagga sources do not use the deprecated interfaces (you should update Quagga sources to use new interfaces, if applicable), while allowing external sources to continue to build. Deprecated interfaces should be excised in the next unstable cycle. Note: If you wish, you can test for GCC and use a function marked with the 'deprecated' attribute. However, you must provide the warning for other compilers. If changing or removing a command definition, \emph{ensure} that you properly deprecate it - use the \_DEPRECATED form of the appropriate DEFUN macro. This is \emph{critical}. Even if the command can no longer function, you \emph{MUST} still implement it as a do-nothing stub. Failure to follow this causes grief for systems administrators, as an upgrade may cause daemons to fail to start because of unrecognised commands. Deprecated commands should be excised in the next unstable cycle. A list of deprecated commands should be collated for each release. See also section~\ref{sec:dll-versioning} below regarding SHARED LIBRARY VERSIONING. \section{COMPILE-TIME CONDITIONAL CODE} Please think very carefully before making code conditional at compile time, as it increases maintenance burdens and user confusion. In particular, please avoid gratuitious --enable-\ldots switches to the configure script - typically code should be good enough to be in Quagga, or it shouldn't be there at all. When code must be compile-time conditional, try have the compiler make it conditional rather than the C pre-processor - so that it will still be checked by the compiler, even if disabled. I.e. this: \begin{verbatim} if (SOME_SYMBOL) frobnicate(); \end{verbatim} rather than: \begin{verbatim} #ifdef SOME_SYMBOL frobnicate (); #endif /* SOME_SYMBOL */ \end{verbatim} Note that the former approach requires ensuring that SOME\_SYMBOL will be defined (watch your AC\_DEFINEs). \section{COMMIT MESSAGES} The commit message requirements are: \begin{itemize} \item The message \emph{MUST} provide a suitable one-line summary followed by a blank line as the very first line of the message, in the form: \verb|topic: high-level, one line summary| Where topic would tend to be name of a subdirectory, and/or daemon, unless there's a more suitable topic (e.g. 'build'). This topic is used to organise change summaries in release announcements. \item It should have a suitable "body", which tries to address the following areas, so as to help reviewers and future browsers of the code-base understand why the change is correct (note also the code comment requirements): \begin{itemize} \item The motivation for the change (does it fix a bug, if so which? add a feature?) \item The general approach taken, and trade-offs versus any other approaches. \item Any testing undertaken or other information affecting the confidence that can be had in the change. \item Information to allow reviewers to be able to tell which specific changes to the code are intended (and hence be able to spot any accidental unintended changes). \end{itemize} \end{itemize} The one-line summary must be limited to 54 characters, and all other lines to 72 characters. Commit message bodies in the Quagga project have typically taken the following form: \begin{itemize} \item An optional introduction, describing the change generally. \item A short description of each specific change made, preferably: \begin{itemize} \item file by file \begin{itemize} \item function by function (use of "ditto", or globs is allowed) \end{itemize} \end{itemize} \end{itemize} Contributors are strongly encouraged to follow this form. This itemised commit messages allows reviewers to have confidence that the author has self-reviewed every line of the patch, as well as providing reviewers a clear index of which changes are intended, and descriptions for them (C-to-english descriptions are not desireable - some discretion is useful). For short patches, a per-function/file break-down may be redundant. For longer patches, such a break-down may be essential. A contrived example (where the general discussion is obviously somewhat redundant, given the one-line summary): \begin{quote}\begin{verbatim} zebra: Enhance frob FSM to detect loss of frob Add a new DOWN state to the frob state machine to allow the barinator to detect loss of frob. * frob.h: (struct frob) Add DOWN state flag. * frob.c: (frob\_change) set/clear DOWN appropriately on state change. * bar.c: (barinate) Check frob for DOWN state. \end{verbatim}\end{quote} Please have a look at the git commit logs to get a feel for what the norms are. Note that the commit message format follows git norms, so that git log --oneline'' will have useful output. \section{HACKING THE BUILD SYSTEM} If you change or add to the build system (configure.ac, any Makefile.am, etc.), try to check that the following things still work: \begin{itemize} \item make dist \item resulting dist tarball builds \item out-of-tree builds \end{itemize} The quagga.net site relies on make dist to work to generate snapshots. It must work. Common problems are to forget to have some additional file included in the dist, or to have a make rule refer to a source file without using the srcdir variable. \section{RELEASE PROCEDURE} \begin{itemize} \item Tag the apppropriate commit with a release tag (follow existing conventions). [This enables recreating the release, and is just good CM practice.] \item Create a fresh tar archive of the quagga.net repository, and do a test build: \begin{verbatim} git-clone git:///code.quagga.net/quagga.git quagga git-archive --remote=git://code.quagga.net/quagga.git \ --prefix=quagga-release/ master | tar -xf - cd quagga-release autoreconf -i ./configure make make dist \end{verbatim} \end{itemize} The tarball which make dist' creates is the tarball to be released! The git-archive step ensures you're working with code corresponding to that in the official repository, and also carries out keyword expansion. If any errors occur, move tags as needed and start over from the fresh checkouts. Do not append to tarballs, as this has produced non-standards-conforming tarballs in the past. See also: \url{http://wiki.quagga.net/index.php/Main/Processes} [TODO: collation of a list of deprecated commands. Possibly can be scripted to extract from vtysh/vtysh\_cmd.c] \section{TOOL VERSIONS} Require versions of support tools are listed in INSTALL.quagga.txt. Required versions should only be done with due deliberation, as it can cause environments to no longer be able to compile quagga. \section{SHARED LIBRARY VERSIONING} \label{sec:dll-versioning} [this section is at the moment just gdt's opinion] Quagga builds several shared libaries (lib/libzebra, ospfd/libospf, ospfclient/libsopfapiclient). These may be used by external programs, e.g. a new routing protocol that works with the zebra daemon, or ospfapi clients. The libtool info pages (node Versioning) explain when major and minor version numbers should be changed. These values are set in Makefile.am near the definition of the library. If you make a change that requires changing the shared library version, please update Makefile.am. libospf exports far more than it should, and is needed by ospfapi clients. Only bump libospf for changes to functions for which it is reasonable for a user of ospfapi to call, and please err on the side of not bumping. There is no support intended for installing part of zebra. The core library libzebra and the included daemons should always be built and installed together. \section{GIT COMMIT SUBMISSION} \label{sec:git-submission} The preferred method for submitting changes is to provide git commits via a publically-accessible git repository, which the maintainers can easily pull. The commits should be in a branch based off the Quagga.net master - a "feature branch". Ideally there should be no commits to this branch other than those in master, and those intended to be submitted. However, merge commits to this branch from the Quagga master are permitted, though strongly discouraged - use another (potentially local and throw-away) branch to test merge with the latest Quagga master. Recommended practice is to keep different logical sets of changes on separate branches - "topic" or "feature" branches. This allows you to still merge them together to one branch (potentially local and/or "throw-away") for testing or use, while retaining smaller, independent branches that are easier to merge. All content guidelines in section \ref{sec:patch-submission}, PATCH SUBMISSION apply. \section{PATCH SUBMISSION} \label{sec:patch-submission} \begin{itemize} \item For complex changes, contributors are strongly encouraged to first start a design discussion on the quagga-dev list \emph{before} starting any coding. \item Send a clean diff against the 'master' branch of the quagga.git repository, in unified diff format, preferably with the '-p' argument to show C function affected by any chunk, and with the -w and -b arguments to minimise changes. E.g: git diff -up mybranch..remotes/quagga.net/master It is preferable to use git format-patch, and even more preferred to publish a git repository (see GIT COMMIT SUBMISSION, section \ref{sec:git-submission}). If not using git format-patch, Include the commit message in the email. \item After a commit, code should have comments explaining to the reviewer why it is correct, without reference to history. The commit message should explain why the change is correct. \item Include NEWS entries as appropriate. \item Include only one semantic change or group of changes per patch. \item Do not make gratuitous changes to whitespace. See the w and b arguments to diff. \item Changes should be arranged so that the least contraversial and most trivial are first, and the most complex or more contraversial are last. This will maximise how many the Quagga maintainers can merge, even if some other commits need further work. \item Providing a unit-test is strongly encouraged. Doing so will make it much easier for maintainers to have confidence that they will be able to support your change. \item New code should be arranged so that it easy to verify and test. E.g. stateful logic should be separated out from functional logic as much as possible: wherever possible, move complex logic out to smaller helper functions which access no state other than their arguments. \item State on which platforms and with what daemons the patch has been tested. Understand that if the set of testing locations is small, and the patch might have unforeseen or hard to fix consequences that there may be a call for testers on quagga-dev, and that the patch may be blocked until test results appear. If there are no users for a platform on quagga-dev who are able and willing to verify -current occasionally, that platform may be dropped from the "should be checked" list. \end{itemize} \section{PATCH APPLICATION} \begin{itemize} \item Only apply patches that meet the submission guidelines. \item If the patch might break something, issue a call for testing on the mailinglist. \item Give an appropriate commit message (see above), and use the --author argument to git-commit, if required, to ensure proper attribution (you should still be listed as committer) \item Immediately after commiting, double-check (with git-log and/or gitk). If there's a small mistake you can easily fix it with git commit --amend ..' \item When merging a branch, always use an explicit merge commit. Giving --no-ff ensures a merge commit is created which documents this human decided to merge this branch at this time''. \end{itemize} \section{STABLE PLATFORMS AND DAEMONS} The list of platforms that should be tested follow. This is a list derived from what quagga is thought to run on and for which maintainers can test or there are people on quagga-dev who are able and willing to verify that -current does or does not work correctly. \begin{itemize} \item BSD (Free, Net or Open, any platform) \item GNU/Linux (any distribution, i386) \item Solaris (strict alignment, any platform) \item future: NetBSD/sparc64 \end{itemize} The list of daemons that are thought to be stable and that should be tested are: \begin{itemize} \item zebra \item bgpd \item ripd \item ospfd \item ripngd \end{itemize} Daemons which are in a testing phase are \begin{itemize} \item ospf6d \item isisd \item watchquagga \end{itemize} \section{IMPORT OR UPDATE VENDOR SPECIFIC ROUTING PROTOCOLS} The source code of Quagga is based on two vendors: \verb|zebra_org| (\url{http://www.zebra.org/}) \verb|isisd_sf| (\url{http://isisd.sf.net/}) To import code from further sources, e.g. for archival purposes without necessarily having to review and/or fix some changeset, create a branch from master': \begin{verbatim} git checkout -b archive/foo master git commit -a "Joe Bar " git push quagga archive/foo \end{verbatim} presuming quagga' corresponds to a file in your .git/remotes with configuration for the appropriate Quagga.net repository. \end{document} `